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Seminole, founded in 1906 and incorporated in 1936, is the county seat of Gaines County. The town's establishment was marked by the opening of the post office and the construction of a wooden courthouse in that same year. The Seminole Presbyterian Church was built in 1907, followed by the first Methodist church being built in 1908 and the first Baptist church being built in 1922. The Seminole Sentinel, a weekly newspaper, began publishing in 1907 and continued its operations well into the 1990s.
The First State Bank, established in 1914, was a victim of the Great Depression and closed in 1933. It was the development of Seminole Oilfield and the Gaines County oil industry that staved off the worst effects of the depression on the town. Seminole saw significant expansion in the 1950s with the construction of a new hospital in 1953, an expanded water system in 1954, the opening of the Gaines County Library in 1958, and the population more than tripling from 1940 (1,761) to 1960 (5,737).